Glossary of Terms


[ Home | What's New | Coffee Break | Glossary | Feedback ]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #

Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary. If the term you are looking for starts with a digit or symbol, choose the '#' link.


- A -

accordian fold


In Binding, a term used for two or more parallel folds which open like an accordian.

against the grain


Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.

ascender

That part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body, as in "b".
 
 
authors alterations


In Composition, changes and additions in the copy after it has been set in type. Often called "AA's".

 
 
Back to Top

- B -

 
backbone


The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called spine.

backing up


Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

bad break


In Composition, starting a page or ending a paragraph with a 'widow'.

basis weight


The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade: 25 x 38 for book papers, 20 x 26 for cover papers, 22 1/2 x 28 1/2 or 22 1/2 x 35 for bristols, 25 1/2 x 30 1/2 for index. E.g., 500 sheets 25 x 38 of 80-lb. coated weighs eighty pounds.

bleed


An extra amount of printed image which extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.

blind embossing


A design which is stamped without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.

break for color


In artwork and composition, to separate the parts to be printed in different colors.

 
Back to Top

- C -

 
cast coated


Coated paper dried under pressure against a polished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finish.

coated paper


Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth finish. Surfaces vary from eggshell to glossy.

color separation


In composition, the process of separating color originals into the primary printing color components in negative or positive form.

Back to Top

- D -

 
descender


That part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body, as in "p".

die-cutting


The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes for labels, boxes and containers, from printed sheets.

die-stamping


An intaglio process for the production of letterheads, cards, etc., printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel.

duotone


A term for a two-color halftone reproduction from a one-color photograph.

Back to Top

- E -

embossed finish


Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather or other pattern.

embossing


Impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting or on blank paper (called blind embossing).

emulsion side


In Photography, the side of the film coated with the silver halide emulsion which should face the lens during exposure.

Back to Top

- F -

felt side


The smoother side of the paper for printing. The top side of the sheet in paper manufacturing.

flat


In offset lithography, the assembled composite of negatives or positives, mostly on mylar, ready for platemaking.

folio


The page number.

font


In composition, a complete assortment of letters, numbers, puncuation marks,etc. of a given size and design.

form


In offset, the assembly of pages and other images for printing.

 
Back to Top

- G -

grain


In papermaking, the direction in which most fibers lie which cooresponds with the direction the paper is made on a paper machine.

gripper margin


Unprintable blank edge of paper on which grippers bear, usually 1/2 inch or less.

Back to Top

- H -

hairline register


Register within +/- 1/2 row of dots.

halftone


The reproduction of continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, through a crossline or contact screen, which converts the image into dots of various sizes.

highlight


The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.

Back to Top

- I -

imposition


The arrangement of pages in a press form to insure the correct order after the printed sheet is folded and trimmed.

Back to Top

- J -

justify


In Composition, to space out lines uniformly to the correct length.

Back to Top

- K -

kerning


In typesetting, subtracting the space between two characters, so that they appear closer together.

Back to Top

- L -

laid paper


Paper with a pattern of parallel lines at equal distances, giving a ribbed effect.

leading


In Composition, the distance between lines of type measured in points.

linecopy


Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

Back to Top

- M -

"M"


Abbreviation for a quantity of 1000 sheets of paper.

makeready


In printing presses, all work done prior to running, i.e., adjusting the feeder, grippers, side guide, putting ink in the fountain, etc.

matte finish


Dull paper finish without gloss or luster.

moiré


In color process printing, the undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles of overprinting halftones.

Back to Top

- N -

negative


In Photography, film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas appear light and vice versa.

Back to Top

- O -

offset


See set-off. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate.

opacity


That property of paper which minimizes the "show-through" of printing from the backside or the next sheet.

overprinting


Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed.

Back to Top

- P -

pagination


The process of performing page makeup automatically.

perfecting press


A printing press that prints both sides of the paper in one pass.

pica


Printer's unit of measurement used principally in typesetting. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.

picking


The lifting of the paper surface during printing. It occurs when pulling force (tack) of ink is greater than surface strength of paper.

point


Printer's unit of measurement, used principally for designating type sizes. There are 12 points to a pica; approximately 72 points to an inch.

press proofs


In Color reproduction, a proof of a color subject on a printing press, in advance of the production run.

process printing


The printing from a series of two or more halftone plates to produce intermediate colors or shades. In four-color process: yellow, magenta, cyan, and black.

Back to Top

- Q -

(empty)
Back to Top

- R -

register


In printing, fitting of two or more printing images on the same paper in exact alignment with each other.

rub-proof


In printing, an ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Back to Top

- S -

saddle stitch


In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.

screen ruling


The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

scum


In offset-lithography, a film of ink printing in the non-image areas of the plate where it should not print.

self-cover


A cover of the same paper as the inside text pages.

set-off


In presswork, when the ink of a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset

sheetwise


To print one side of a sheet of paper with one form or plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another form using the same gripper and side guide.

stripping


In offset-lithography, the positioning of negatives (or positives) on a flat (Mylar) prior to platemaking.

Back to Top

- T -

tack


In printing inks,the property of cohesion between particles; the pulling power or separation force of ink. A tacky ink has high separation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers.

transparent ink


A printing ink which does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.

Back to Top

- U -

(empty)
Back to Top

- V -

varnish


A thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. Also, in inkmaking,it can be all or part of the ink vehicle.

vehicle


in printing inks,the fluid component which acts as a carrier for the pigment.

vellum finish


in papermaking,a toothy finish which is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.

velox


A photographic paper print made from a screen negative.

vignette


An illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.

Back to Top

- W -

washup


The process of cleaning the rollers, form or plate, and sometimes the ink fountain of a printing press.

watermark


in papermaking,a design impressed on paper by the raised pattern of the dandy roll during manufacture.

widow


in composition,a single word in a line by itself, ending a paragraph; frowned upon in good typography.

wire-o binding


A continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.

wire side


in papermaking,the side of a sheet next to the wire in manufacturing; opposite from felt or top side.

with the grain


Folding or feeding paper into a press parallel to the grain of the paper.

work and tumble


To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.

work and turn


To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side. The same gripper and plate are used for printing both sides.

wove paper


Paper having a uniform unlined surface and a soft smooth finish.

Back to Top

- X -

(empty)
Back to Top

- Y -

(empty)
Back to Top

- Z -

(empty)
Back to Top

- # -

(empty)
Back to Top

[ Home | What's New | Coffee Break | Glossary | Feedback ]


Revised: November 1, 2000.
Copyright © 2000 by Hermitage Press, Inc.
All trademarks or product names mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.